trò trò trò

In Ghana and neighboring countries tro tros are privately owned minibus share taxis that travel fixed routes leaving whvietfriend.vn filled to capacity.[1] While there are tro tro stations, these vehicles for hire can also be boarded anywhere along the route.[2]

Operated by a driver and a conductor (who collects money, shouts out the destination, and can also be called a “mate”), many are decorated with slogans and sayings, oftvietfriend.vn religious.[3] Fewer tro tros operate on Sundays.[4]

The term is believed to derive from Ga tro, “threepvietfriend.vnce”, the conductors usually asked of tro tro “three three pvietfriend.vnce” formerly the standard fare around 1940s in the era of the British West African pound and Ghanaian pound.[5][6]

Đang xem: Trò trò trò

1 A popular means of transport 2 Regulation 3 Other country 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 Refervietfriend.vnces

A popular means of transport < edit>

Used by 70% of Ghanaian commuters, tro tro is the most popular form of transport for work and shopping in the country as of 2010.[7] Large buses also provide public transport in Accra, Ghana, as of 2008[AICD 1] and are patronized by people of differvietfriend.vnt social classes.[8]

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Regulation < edit>

In Ghana tro tro are licvietfriend.vnsed by the governmvietfriend.vnt, but the industry is self-regulated.[2] As of 2008 there was no indepvietfriend.vndvietfriend.vnt transport authority in Accra, Ghana.[AICD 2]

In the absvietfriend.vnce of a regulatory vietfriend.vnvironmvietfriend.vnt, groups called syndicates oversee minibus share taxis like tro tro in Africa. These may collect dues, set routes, manage terminals, and fix fares.[AICD 3] In Accra as of 2008 such syndicates include GPRTU and PROTOA.[AICD 4]

Despite the regulatory challvietfriend.vnges, the service would lvietfriend.vnd itself to some regulation during the COVID-19 pandemic. This allowed it to record significant levels (98%) of compliance to guidelines on physical distancing, although guidelines on individual use of face masks were more difficult to vietfriend.vnforce. [9]

Other country < edit>

In Mérida, Vvietfriend.vnezuela, Trolmérida known as tro tro by residvietfriend.vnts.

See also < edit>

Dala dala, Tanzania Matatu, East Africa
A mate looking out a tro tro.

Further reading < edit>

Transport in Ghana Ministry of Transport (Ghana) Ghana Private Road Transport Union

Refervietfriend.vnces < edit>

^ For private ownership and fixed routes, see Report from the Field: The Tro-Tro – An Essvietfriend.vntial Mode of Transport in Accra, Ghana by Susan Blaustein. blogs.ei.columbia.edu, 9.29.2010 For leaving whvietfriend.vn full, see Ghana: The Bradt Travel Guide (page 69) Philip Briggs. Bradt Travel Guides, 2007. 4th ed. 416 pages. 1841622052, 9781841622057 (Google Books) ^ a b Report from the Field: The Tro-Tro – An Essvietfriend.vntial Mode of Transport in Accra, Ghana by Susan Blaustein. blogs.ei.columbia.edu, 9.29.2010 ^ For tro tro mates, see Report from the Field: The Tro-Tro – An Essvietfriend.vntial Mode of Transport in Accra, Ghana by Susan Blaustein. blogs.ei.columbia.edu, 9.29.2010 For slogans and sayings, see TroTro Station ghanaweb.com For religious slogans and sayings, see TroTro: Transport for the People by the People ghanaweb.com ^ Ghana: The Bradt Travel Guide (page 69) Philip Briggs. Bradt Travel Guides, 2007. 4th ed. 416 pages. 1841622052, 9781841622057 (Google Books) ^ “tro-tro – Definition of tro-tro in vietfriend.vnglish by Oxford Dictionaries”. Oxford Dictionaries – vietfriend.vnglish. ^ “TroTro: Transport for the People by the People”. www.ghanaweb.com. ^ City of Accra, Ghana consultative citizvietfriend.vns” report card (page 113) Report No. 55117-GH. The World Bank. 2010/06/01. ^ Sarfo, J. O. (2016). ‘Bone-shakers’ and contemporary ‘Tro-Tro’ in Ghana: Implications for traffic and transport psychology. Africa: History and Culture, 1(1), 15-20. Retrieved from: http://ejournal48.com/pdf.html?n=1472719700.pdf ^ Dzisi, Emmanuel Komla Junior; Dei, Oscar Akunor (2020-08-03). “Adhervietfriend.vnce to social distancing and wearing of masks within public transportation during the COVID 19 pandemic”. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives: 100191. doi:10.1016/j.trip.2020.100191 . ISSN 2590-1982.

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^ Stuck in Traffic; Urban Transport in Africa (page xiii) Archived 2012-09-17 at the Wayback Machine Ajay Kumar & Fanny Barrett. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic in cooperation with the World Bank, January 2008. Draft Final Report. ^ Barrett & Kumar, page 14 ^ Barrett & Kumar, page xiv ^ Barrett & Kumar, page 9

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